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  • 2007年08月09日



    File Commands

    ls – directory listing

    ls -al – formatted listing with hidden files

    cd dir - change directory to dir

    cd – change to home

    pwd – show current directory

    mkdir dir – create a directory dir

    rm file – delete file

    rm -r dir – delete directory dir

    rm -f file – force remove file

    rm -rf dir – force remove directory dir *

    cp file1 file2 – copy file1 to file2

    cp -r dir1 dir2 – copy dir1 to dir2; create dir2 if it doesn't exist

    mv file1 file2 – rename or move file1 to file2

    if file2 is an existing directory, moves file1 into directory file2

    ln -s file link – create symbolic link link to file

    touch file – create or update file

    cat > file – places standard input into file

    more file – output the contents of file

    head file – output the first 10 lines of file

    tail file – output the last 10 lines of file

    tail -f file – output the contents of file as it grows, starting with the last 10 lines

    Process Management

    ps – display your currently active processes

    top – display all running processes

    kill pid – kill process id pid

    killall proc – kill all processes named proc *

    bg – lists stopped or background jobs; resume a stopped job in the background

    fg – brings the most recent job to foreground

    fg n – brings job n to the foreground

    File Permissions

    chmod octal file – change the permissions of file to octal, which can be found separately for user,group, and world by adding:

    4 – read (r)

    2 – write (w)

    1 – execute (x)


    chmod 777 – read, write, execute for all

    chmod 755 – rwx for owner, rx for group and world For more options, see man chmod.


    ssh user@host – connect to host as user

    ssh -p port user@host – connect to host on port port as user

    ssh-copy-id user@host – add your key to host for user to enable a keyed or passwordless login


    grep pattern files – search for pattern in files

    grep -r pattern dir – search recursively for pattern in dir

    command | grep pattern – search for pattern in the output of command

    locate file – find all instances of file

    System Info

    date – show the current date and time

    cal – show this month's calendar

    uptime – show current uptime

    w – display who is online

    whoami – who you are logged in as

    finger user – display information about user

    uname -a – show kernel information

    cat /proc/cpuinfo – cpu information

    cat /proc/meminfo – memory information

    man command – show the manual for command

    df – show disk usage

    du – show directory space usage

    free – show memory and swap usage

    whereis app show possible locations of app

    which app – show which app will be run by default


    tar cf file.tar files – create a tar named file.tar containing files

    tar xf file.tar – extract the files from file.tar

    tar czf file.tar.gz files – create a tar with Gzip compression

    tar xzf file.tar.gz – extract a tar using Gzip

    tar cjf file.tar.bz2 – create a tar with Bzip2 compression

    tar xjf file.tar.bz2 – extract a tar using Bzip2

    gzip file – compresses file and renames it to file.gz

    gzip -d file.gz – decompresses file.gz back to file


    ping host – ping host and output results

    whois domain – get whois information for domain

    dig domain – get DNS information for domain

    dig -x host – reverse lookup host

    wget file – download file

    wget -c file – continue a stopped download


    Install from source:



    make install

    dpkg -i pkg.deb – install a package (Debian)

    rpm -Uvh pkg.rpm – install a package (RPM)


    Ctrl+C – halts the current command

    Ctrl+Z – stops the current command, resume with fg in the foreground or bg in the background

    Ctrl+D – log out of current session, similar to exit

    Ctrl+W – erases one word in the current line

    Ctrl+U – erases the whole line

    Ctrl+R – type to bring up a recent command!! - repeats the last command

    exit – log out of current session


    * use with extreme caution.


    【下载】Unix/Linux Command Cheat Sheet

    【原文】Printable beginner's guide to the terminal



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